World Arthritis Day is widely known to spread awareness about the importance of adopting a healthy lifestyle and inspiring early detection of arthritis.
History of World Arthritis Day:
Raising awareness about the importance of adopting a healthy lifestyle and inspiring early detection of arthritis.
Arthritis affects around 15% people i.e. over 180 million people in India. WHO data show that 0.3-1% of the world’s population has atrophic arthritis and, 18% women while around 10% men above the 60 years have “symptomatic osteoarthritis”.
Theme 2020: “Time2Work”.
What is Arthritis?
Arthritis literally means the swelling and tenderness of 1 or more joints which results in pain and stiffness within the joints. It can affect one joint or multiple joints. There are quite 100 differing types of arthritis, with different causes and treatment methods. the foremost common types are osteoarthritis (OA)(the commonest reason for age-related joint pain worldwide), gout, fibromyalgia and atrophic arthritis (RA)(an autoimmune condition which will affect people at any age). atrophic arthritis is an autoimmune condition which will affect people at any age while osteoarthritis is that the commonest reason for age-related joint pain.
Arthritis has been shown to possess been with us as long as creatures have had bones, there’s even evidence that ankle arthritis was present in dinosaurs by the study of fossils. Research has shown that it’s been present in humans a minimum of as far back as 4500 BC, and has been shown to be one among the foremost common afflictions of the prehistoric peoples. it had been first closely examined and classified in William Musgraves work, De Arthritide symptomatica, written in 1715.
• Common non-inflammatory RMDs are degenerative spine diseases, osteoarthritis , osteoporosis and fibromyalgia
• Common inflammatory RMDs are atrophic arthritis , Marie-Strumpell disease , reactive arthritis, animal tissue diseases and polymyalgia rheumatica.
RMDs are often hereditary; also can be triggered by lifestyle factors like smoking, excessive weight, sedentary lifestyles, increasing age and having occupations that cause injury and overuse of joints/muscles; however, in some cases the causes are unknown.
Early medical treatment of inflammatory RMDs, particularly within the first 12 weeks, can prevent joint and organ damage and improve long-term function.
Arthritis in India:
According to one estimate, 15% of Indians who have a musculoskeletal condition have some sort of arthritis. the foremost common sorts of arthritis in India are osteoarthritis, atrophic arthritis and gout. within the spirit of raising awareness on World Arthritis Day, here’s what you would like to understand about these three conditions:
• Age of onset: 50 – 60 years
• Cause: Wear and tear of joints over time can cause changes within the structure and performance of the entire joint.
• Symptoms: Joint pain after physical activity like getting up from a chair, transient stiffness within the morning or after rest, reduced range of motion, tenderness within the joints and bony swelling.
Rheumatoid arthritis :
• Age of onset: 30-60 years
• Cause: it’s an autoimmune disorder during which the body’s own system attacks the body’s joints. it’s a progressive disease that affects the articular (the connection between the joints) and extra-articular (surrounding the joints like disks) structures leading to pain, disability and even mortality.
• Symptoms: Vague pain with the gradual appearance of swelling or tenderness within the joints, prolonged periods of morning stiffness with arthralgia (joint pain), and pain during a limited number of joints.
Gout may be a sort of inflammatory arthritis that develops in some people that have high levels of acid within the blood. acid may be a product of the breakdown of urine.
Symptoms of Arthritis :
The most common symptoms of autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases are listed as:
• Severe fatigue that’s not relieved with caffeine intake
• Brain fog
• Flu-like symptoms – malaise, nausea, muscle weakness
Arthritis have the subsequent additional symptoms which will show up (or flare-up) along side the above-mentioned symptoms then subside spontaneously:
• Persistent joint pain for quite 6 weeks
• Swollen joints swelling
• Stiffness within the body which worsens with rest usually worsen with age
• Decreased range of movements.
Diagnosis of arthritis :
• autoantibody (RF) test: a biopsy that measures the amount of RF antibodies present within the blood. Normally, antibodies are produced by the system to assist destroy bacteria and viruses which will cause diseases. But the RF antibodies can attach to normal body tissue, leading to damage.
• Levels of erythrocyte erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels also are higher in patients. Both CRP and ESR levels are wont to check disease activity and also to watch how well someone is responding to treatment.
• Imaging scans: X-rays, CT scans and MRI are commonly wont to get the image of bones and cartilage to determine the damage.
• Early diagnosis of atrophic arthritis is critical. If not treated, inflammation may cause articular damage and bone depletion, particularly within the primary two years of the disease. this sort of arthritis is more prevalent in older women.
• the first clinical symptoms of atrophic arthritis are symmetric arthritis (it affects joints on each side of the body), prolonged morning stiffness, and painful swelling in multiple joints.
• Radiologically, an MRI or maybe an easy X-ray may show bone erosion or depletion related to atrophic arthritis .
• Additionally, blood samples may show high C-reactive protein levels or high eosinophil erythrocyte sedimentation rate . Patients can also test positive for autoantibody – a protein.
Treatment options :
While knee braces and orthotics can provide support, doctors can also prescribe medicines for pain relief also on slow the progression of the disease.
• Disease modified anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) are sometimes prescribed for people living with atrophic arthritis , to preserve the joints by blocking inflammation.
• Administration of steroids together with DMARDs has proved useful within the remission of atrophic arthritis in some patients.
• Analgesics like paracetamol and COX-2 inhibitors like Rofecoxib – both are sorts of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug drugs or NSAIDs -or opioids (sometimes prescribed for patients who are allergic to NSAIDs) are given to scale back pain in every sort of arthritis.
• Knee braces and orthotic are often employed by patients – knee braces give support to the knees whereas orthotics are the medical devices that are worn inside the shoes to assist comfortable walking.
• Physiotherapy may help some patients to scale back the progression of stiffness within the joints.
• Reduction in fatty and oily food, along side the incorporation of vegetarian protein diet, is advocated in gout patients.
• Patients should avoid sugary and sweetened beverages.
• Drinking quite 2 litres of water each day may be a must for gout patients.
How does weight influence arthritis?
• Maintaining a healthy weight reduces the danger of developing osteoarthritis.
• Health tips for living with RMDs/Arthritis –
a) Healthy living – Improve your wellbeing by keeping high on emotional wellbeing, self-management and motivation and by making healthy life style choices such as:
• Don’t smoke.
• Avoid stress – As stress can alter behaviour, affect sleep patterns, change appetite and increase muscle tension therefore use relaxation techniques to assist manage stress.
• Get adequate sleep – Get enough quality sleep to guard your mental and physical wellbeing and quality of life. Reduce alcohol intake (b) Healthy eating- Healthy and diet is vital for people with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs).
Control your salt and sugar intake :
• attempt to reduce sugar intake because it is high in calories especially in soft drinks, ready meals and confectionery foods.
• Salt intake should be but 5 grams per day for adults. an excessive amount of salt can cause high vital sign , an increased risk of heart condition and osteoporosis.
(c) Physical activity and fitness- Being physically active is sweet for general health and may have specific benefits for people with RMD/Arthritis. Consult your doctor or physiotherapist about the sort of exercise most appropriate for your condition. Exercise could also be within the sort of cycling, dancing, walking, gardening, swimming, yoga etc.