On September 22, 1980, the Iraqi army invaded the Iranian Khuzestan and therefore the Iran–Iraq War began. This conflict is usually compared to war I for its similar fighting tactics and brutality. one among the deadliest wars within the Middle East , it had been rooted during a border dispute between the 2 oil producing nations. Iraq invaded Iran, to August 1988. The Iranian Revolution in 1979 would inspire insurgency among Iraq’s long-suppressed Shi’i majority, also as Iraq’s desire to exchange Iran because the dominant Persian Gulf state.
Origins of The Iran-Iraq War
• In March 1975, a deal signed in Algiers between the Shah of Iran and Hussein , then Iraq’s vice chairman had tried to settle the argument.
• The Algiers accord ruled that their border ran along the centre of the Shatt al-Arab, a 200 kilometre long river formed by the meeting of the Tigris and therefore the Euphrates, which flows into the Gulf.But in April 1980, Baghdad accused Tehran (now the Islamic Republic of Iran), after the 1979 toppling of the Shah of plotting attacks.
• Iraq involved the evacuation of three strategic islands within the Strait of Hormuz, claimed by both Iran and therefore the United Arab Emirates. On Citizenship Day , Baghdad said the Algiers accord was null and void. It demanded all of the Shatt al-Arab.
Why did Saddam want to annex the territory of Iran?
Saddam’s goal was to exchange Egypt because the “leader of the Arab world” and achieve hegemony over the Persian Gulf . He saw Iran’s increased weakness thanks to revolution, sanctions, and international isolation. With Iran engulfed in chaos, a chance for Iraq to annex the oil-rich Khuzestan Province materialized.
War that began on 1980
• On September 22, Hussein sent soldiers into Iran. His air force bombed airports including that of Iran’s capital Tehran also as military targets, and refining industry infrastructure. The petroleum refinery of Abadan, one among the most important in Iran, was pack up .
• They seized the towns of Qasr-e Shirin and Mehran, and captured Iran’s southwestern port of Khorramshahr, where the Shatt al-Arab meets the ocean .
. Arab nations including the rich Gulf countries dominated by Sunnite leaders gave billions of dollars to Iraq. They saw Hussein as a bulwark against the Islamic Revolution of Iran’s Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a Shiite .
In March 1982, Iran launched a serious counter-attack within the southwestern oil province of Khuzestan, taking back its port of Khorramshahr. Baghdad announced a ceasefire and pulled back troops. But Tehran rejected the ceasefire. Iran continues the fight, bombarding the main Iraqi city of Basra, and in July, begins an offensive on the southern front.
• Iraq in August blockades the most oil terminal on Kharg Island, just off Iran’s coast. From April 1984, the 2 sides engage during a “war of the cities”.Some 30 cities on each side are battered by missile attacks. In 1984, Iran accuses Iraq of using chemical weapons on its soldiers in battles within the marshes of Majnoon. The UN confirms the accusations. Baghdad strengthens its maritime blockade of Iran.
In Iraq’s south east. In June 1987, Iraq drops gas canisters on the Iranian town of Sardasht. In March 1988, Baghdad is again accused of using chemical weapons, this point against its own population, within the Iraqi town of Halabja.
• Iran is pushed back across the Shatt al-Arab (into which the Tigris and Euphrates combine, forming Iraq’s best outlet to the sea). On July 18, Khomeini accepts a UN Security Council resolution approved a year earlier and already accepted by Iraq to prevent the fighting. While the precise number of these killed within the war isn’t known, a minimum of 650,000 died, roughly two-thirds of them Iranians, consistent with French historian Pierre Razoux.
• within the mid-1980s the military stalemate continued, but on 20 August 1988 Iran’s deteriorating economy and up to date Iraqi gains on the battlefield compelled Iran to simply accept .